These tools provide an instructional framework and delivery model that will assist students in taking ownership of learning throughout the learning cycle.
Strategic Learning Model (341K PDF) -- Based on the 4MAT Learning system and the ITIP Model by Bernice McCarthy, this model describes that learning cycle and the strategic teaching method to guide students into learning.
For students to begin to take ownership of learning they will need to know:
• where they are going (learning target),
• what it looks like when they get there (performance of understanding/assessment) and the
• steps or process in reaching their goals (student "look-fors").
The student “Look-Fors” become the higher-order thinking, critical thinking that a student needs to reach the learning target. Once these are identified the instructor will model them, the student will practice them and use them for self-assessment in reaching the learning target.
- The Lesson Framework (40K WORD) provides a template to identify the key components of a lesson.
- The Gradual Release Model (82K PDF) demonstrates how instructors may scaffold students into the learning cycle to reach learning outcomes.
- Guide with Tools for Students to Track Progress Towards the Learning Target (1,056K WORD) -- Once an instructor has established the key components of a lesson, they can identify the critical thinking questions and tools a student can use to reach the learning target. These questions fall into two categories and serve two purposes --- Cognitive questions (what to learn) and Metacognitive questions (how to learn).
The following information and tools are examples of how Students may ask and answer these questions throughout the learning process once they are modeled by the instructor.
- Guide to Understanding Cognitive and Metacognitive Questioning (457K PDF) explains the difference between the two types of questioning and offers examples of each type for the content areas of RLA, Social Studies, and Science.
The following are question stems for cognitive questioning:
- Developing Higher Order Thinking Questions (323K WORD) provides Depth of Knowledge Questions in Reading, Social Studies , Science
- Teaching Critical Reading with Questioning Strategies is an article that describes three engaging classroom strategies that can turn students into critical readers.
- Deeper Learning Through Questioning -- From Teaching Excellence in Adult Education provides guidance on developing critical thinking and questioning in adult education students.
- Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions for English Language Arts provides essential, higher-order thinking questions a student may ask an answer in order to develop skills in implementing reading strategies, responding to literature, developing vocabulary, grammar, and spelling skills.
- Depth of Knowledge Question Stems provides a list of critical thinking questions that students can answer to better comprehend complex text.
The following are question stems for metacognitive questioning.
For more on metacognitive questioning and direction and examples on using these tools as student self-assessments, see Student Self-Assessment and Reflection.